in € millions

31 March 2018
 

 

31 March 2017
 

 

Constant
exchange
rates*

 

Actual
exchange
rates

Europe 2 986   3 068   - 2 %   - 3 %
Asia Pacific 4 352   3 903   + 17 %   + 12 %
Americas 1 805   1 781   + 8 %   + 1 %
Japan 980   1 010   + 6 %   - 3 %
Middle East and Africa 856   885   + 2 %   - 3 %
  10 979   10 647   + 8 %   + 3 %
 

* Movements at constant exchange rates are calculated by translating underlying sales in local currencies into euros in both the current year and the comparative year at the average exchange rates applicable for the financial year ended 31 March 2017.